WAI-ZEI Papers

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In the framework of the WAI-ZEI Paper Series, WAI and ZEI publish the academic results of their research cooperation. Papers analyze obstacles to „Sustainable regional integration in West Africa and Europe“ and cover topics across the three research areas, "Regional Integration and Policy Formulation Processes", "Economic Integration and Regional Trade" and "Institutional Capacity-Building for Regional Integration". 

WAI-ZEI Paper 2016

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 32 2016, Praia/Bonn

Awuah seite 1Michael Amoah Awuah:The ECOWAS Area without Internal Borders: Lessons from EU Cross-Border Mobility

The WAI-ZEI paper at hand reviews the literature on (African) borders, mobility theory and border crossings in West Africa. By doing so, a setting for the generation of 11 hypotheses towards understanding open internal borders and cross-border activity in the context of a regional integration process is provided. Commencing with a summary of the definitions of the theories of (liberal) intergovernmentalism, constructivism and new regionalism, the conceptual framework for comparing the Benelux-Schengen Process in the EU and ECOWAS is established.




WAI-ZEI Paper No. 31 2016, Praia/Bonn

Gebru seitr 1Solomon Gebreyohans Gebru: Regional Integration in the Horn of Africa: State of Affairs and Challenges

 Following the path of the European Union, regional integration has been seen as one of the mechanisms that would enable states to promote their economy and enhance their social connectivity and security. Post-independence Africa either due to its size or other factors, witnessed several regional integration arrangements, making it the continent with the highest density of regional economic communities.

This edition of WAI-ZEI Paper presents the state of affairs and challenges of regional integration within the Horn of Africa. It introduces a conceptual regional integration framework, the genesis and evolution of regional integration on the African continent, as well as the state of play and challenges of regional integration within the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), compared to other African regional economic communities (RECs). Given that the Horn of Africa is known for violent inter and intra-state conflicts, it is not surprising that many of the activities of IGAD have been centered around issues related to peace and security, while - compared to other African RECs - the overall progress of integration in the IGAD region has been lagging behind.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 30 2016, Praia/Bonn

Masinde S 1Wanyama Masinde/ Chris Omolo: Key Factors of Capacity Development for Regional Integration in Africa

Over the last few decades, there has been a resurgence of regionalism across the globe that has also touched the continent of Africa. This new wave of regionalism features deeper political and economic integration, beyond the free trade arrangements that characterized traditional regionalization, and is characterized by far more complex and multi-dimensional processes and institutions.

This edition of WAI-ZEI Paper discusses the project of African regionalism and analyzes the impediments it faces, such as insecurity and political instability, poor regional infrastructure, weak institutional capacities and divergent country attitudes towards regional integration. How Africa navigates through these factors will determine whether it achieves the ultimate objective of integration: the establishment of the African Economic Community.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 29 2016, Praia/Bonn

Guilherm Seite 1Manuel Guilherme Júnior: The COMESA-EAC-SADC Tripartite Free Trade Area – New Regionalism and Lessons From the EU.

This edition of WAI-ZEI paper analyzes the situation of the regional integration process in Africa with a particular focus on the Tripartite Agreement between the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the East African Community (EAC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), signed in June 2015 and evaluates the lessons to be learned from the European Union’s experience.

Including 26 countries from within the African continent and representing a population of about 600 million people (almost half of the continent), the Tripartite Agreement is one of the trade agreements with the broadest regional impact and represents a very significant step towards the realization of the Africa Free Trade Area, envisaged in the various instruments of the African Union (AU). However, the negotiation of this instrument comprised several stages and corresponded to the need to overcome some constraints resulting from the dual affiliation of member states in regional integration schemes, hindering the achievement of the objectives proposed by the regional integration organizations.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 28 2016, Praia/Bonn

Assoua seite 1Kocra L. Assoua: Unpacking the Relationship between Decentralization and Regional Economic Integration in Sub-Sahara Africa. Towards an analytical framework for regional governance

Since the wave of democratization that swept across many developing countries, there is a worldwide trend toward promoting local government development and increasing transfer of power, resources and responsibilities to sub-national governments. Paradoxically, at the same time, regional integration has grown increasingly popular, especially in sub-Saharan countries.

This edition of WAI-ZEI Paper explores the relationship between regional integration and decentralization. The paper addresses the question of whether decentralization and regional integration are complementary and mutually reinforcing processes or rather conflicting trends. It briefly surveys the classical theoretical literature addressing the relationship between decentralization and regional integration. The aim here is to propose an analytical framework that will improve our understanding of issues related to spatial and institutional asymmetries in regional economic integration.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 27 2016, Praia/Bonn

Kamyogo seite 1Emmanuel Kam Yogo: Le Processus d‘Intégration Regionale en Afrique Centrale : État des Lieux et Défis

Regionalism in Africa has undergone various changes. First, it was marked by the fervor of the independence period, accompanied by a Pan-Africanist discourse and the creation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The downturn in the 1970s, caused by multiple crises and divergent approaches among African leaders, was followed by a new regionalist impulse in the 1990s. Within the African regional integration context, Central Africa occupies a special position. The region serves as a connecting hu in the African integration spaces; it is endowed with rich resource deposits and, therefore, has a high economic development potential.

This edition of WAI-ZEI Paper sheds light on the dynamics of regional integration in Central Africa by portraying the two communities that co-exist in the region: the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). Also the challenges of   deepening integration process are explored.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 26 2016, Praia/Bonn

Kouassi Seite 1René N’Guettia Kouassi: Plus de 50 Ans d’Intégration Africaine : Quel Bilan ?/ More than 50 Years of African Integration: The State of Play

The process of African integration is historically rooted in the Pan-Africanist movements driven by the African diaspora. These movements have found support in Africa since the dawn of independence, and even before, with the advent of a raft of flourishing institutions of integration, in which the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which became the African Union (AU) in 2001, occupies a prominent place. In this context, the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and many intergovernmental institutions were established for the sole purpose of integrating the African continent economically and politically.

This edition of WAI-ZEI paper gives an overview of the African integration process and is taking stock of the results achieved. While acknowledging the achievements made, several constraints, including the persistence of national sovereignty, the shortage of financial resources, poor basic infrastructures, or weak governance institutions, are likely to annihilate the efforts made for the success of the African integration. This paper therefore sheds light on the ways to address the challenges of integration.

WAI-ZEI Paper 2015

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 25 2015, Praia/Bonn

WAI ZEI Paper ECOPOST CoverCharles Edward Minega and Djénéba Traoré (eds.): Higher Education and Research Policy for Regional Integration in West Africa

The paper at hand summarizes the focal points of ECOWAS policy in the area of science, technology and innovation (ECOPOST) as well as the results of the WAI - CEDIR Workshop on Higher Education and Research Policy for Regional Integration in West Africa and Beyond which took place in Praia, Republic of Cabo Verde, from September 29-30, 2014. Thematic areas of the workshop were:  The Development and implementation of a regional collaborative academic network; The Role of Higher Education in resolving the Social, Cultural and Scientific challenges arising from the Regional Integration Process; Strengthening institutional capacity towards further integration and improved quality - mainstreaming regional integration through teaching and research in Tertiary Institutions; Leveraging Higher Education and Research Policy for Knowledge Management, Innovation and Technology as drivers of the regional integration process; and How can Universities create synergies to assist countries to better integrate into the growing global knowledge-based economy?

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 24 2015, Praia/Bonn

WAI ZEI Paper ARISAS 1Ludger Kühnhardt and Djénéba Traoré (eds.): Brainstorming for a Pan-African Network in Regional Integration Studies

Despite the growing economic and political importance of and academic interest in African regional integration, topical research communities across the continent are not formally or structurally linked, hindering efficient and synergetic exchange and cooperation. Against this background, academic representatives from Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in Africa and Europe met in Praia on 25-26 March 2015 to initiate a debate on how this gap could be bridged. The WAI-ZEI Paper at hand summarizes the results of this fruitful exchange, elaborating the possible benefits, objectives, priorities and instruments of a Pan-African Network in Regional Integration Studies as well as comparative perspectives from the European experience. Last but not least, it provides a profound overview of higher education research in Africa, as well as possible governance structures and prospects for the establishment of such a network.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 23 2015, Praia/Bonn

Front cover enAblam Benjamin Akoutou, Rike Sohn, Matthias Vogl, Daniel Yeboah (eds.): Migration and Civil Society as Development Drivers - a Regional Perspective

Against the background of the EU-Africa Declaration of Migration and Mobility signed at the 4th EU-Africa summit in April 2014, this WAI-ZEI Anthology summarizes the findings of the 5th WAI-ZEI Conference on 8-9th September 2014 in Praia, Republic of Cabo Verde, with the goal to find alternative and innovative approaches towards the current questions of migration and civil society in both regions. It particularly focuses on the following questions: What synergies can be found among civil society and external partners to effectively manage inter- and intra-regional migration? How can migrants’ human and financial resources be used efficiently to enhance trade and regional integration efforts? How can policy areas be aligned for a more harmonized approach to migration that takes global development aspects into account?

WAI-ZEI Paper No.23 is also available in Portuguese and French.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 22 2015, Praia/Bonn

WAI ZEI 22 image miniManuel Guilherme Júnior: Comparison of Regional Economic Communities in Africa – The Case of SADC

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 22 analyzes the regional integration process in Southern Africa, which is one of the oldest examples of regional integration. The Southern African Development Community (SADC), which was initially founded as a stronghold against the Apartheid regime in South Africa, has become a frontrunner among the so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in Africa. Due to the disputed role of Zimbabwe in the region, to the weakness of regional institutions and to the membership of some countries in more than one REC, there are however deficits with regard to the practical implementation of regional goals. They particularly concern the transition from a Free Trade Area to a customs union. Against this background, members of three RECs in Southern and Eastern Africa, SADC, COMESA and EAC, have decided to adopt a so-called Tripartite Agreement in 2011. Through this agreement, a Free Trade Area for more than 600 Mio. people was established. This step was seen as an opportunity to re-boost the regional integration process in the southern part of Africa.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 21 2015, Praia/Bonn

WAI ZEI 21 image miniLudger Kühnhardt, World War I: Lessons Learned and Lessons Threatened

In WAI-ZEI Paper No. 21, Prof. Dr. Ludger Kühnhardt takes a look at different European concepts of state order from the „Westphalian System“, to the „Balance of Power“, collective security and „Region-Building“, and puts them into historical perspective. Those concepts have been challenged time and again by other approaches like nationalism, imperalism and not the least totalitarism. Particularly the imperial approach has influenced the Africa policy of European nation states. However, Europe and Africa have now entered the age of „Region-Building“. Africa is try to follow the European approach of regional integration and is support by Europe. Major components of this approach are individual freedom, democracy, rule of law, cooperation and economic development. While Europe and Africa have gone through a learning process after the end of colonialism, the lessons they have learned still remain threatened from the author´s point of view by the concept of imperial zones of influence, which is nowadays mainly represented by Russia.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 20 2015, Praia/Bonn

WAI ZEI 20 image miniSally Brammer / Maria de Fátima Fortes, Master in African Regional Integration

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 20 summarizes the results of the third research area in the framework of the WAI-ZEI Kooperation. It was the goal of this research area to install a new Master program in African regional integration, managed by WAI in cooperation with the National University of Cabo Verde (UNI-CV). The two program coordinators, Sally Brammer und Maria de Fátima Fortes, have elaborated a comprehensive program concept for this purpose. This contains a market analysis in this field as well as an overview of the framework structures of the program and a curriculum. The program will officially start in the course of 2015.

WAI-ZEI Paper 2014

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 19 2014, Praia/Bonn

Cover WAI-ZEI-Paper-19 RoquefeuilQuentin de Roquefeuil: WAI-ZEI Paper Nr. 19: What next, after Economic Partnership Agreements?

After over a decade of controversy, Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations are coming to a close, with the West African region being one of the first to finalize negotiations, with the final outcome pending political endorsement. In this paper, Quentin de Roquefeuil looks back at the EPA process, attempting to outline the basic dynamics surrounding the negotiations, with a particular focus on West Africa. It explains the rationale behind EPAs (the move away from the so-called Lomé preferences in the mid-1990s), the basic setup of negotiation and ensuing dynamics. On this basis, it reflects what Europe’s trade policy agenda towards the African continent could look like in the medium to long-term future.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 18 2014, Praia/Bonn

Deckblatt Celine BasCéline Bas : Aspects fiscaux de la formulation de la politique énergétique européenne

This paper examines the European energy policy (the EU energy policy) with respect to the challenges regarding its fiscal aspects and regarding the emergence of a common energy policy. Fiscal regulation in the energy sector is characterized by a limited competence on the European level, which is due to reluctance of Members States to transfer this sovereign right, particularly in a strategic field like energy. Against this background, Céline Bas deals in a first step with the effects of “negative integration” on the development of a common European energy market. In this context, the prohibition of tax obstacles in the energy field within the Member States and the use of state-aid policies play a role. Secondly, she looks at the efforts for harmonization on a European level and points to existing contradictions and limits. The article closes with a critical evaluation of the development a “real” common European energy policy.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 17 2014, Praia/Bonn

Within the framework of the WAI-ZEI research cooperation "Comparative Regional Integration: The European Union and West Africa", the second comprehensive anthology takes stock of West African regional integration 20 years after the ECOWAS Revised Treaty.

Deckblatt Allein ENGAblam Benjamin Akoutou, Rike Sohn, Matthias Vogl, Daniel Yeboah (eds.): Understanding Regional Integration in West Africa – A Multi-Thematic and Comparative Analysis

In July 1993, the West African integration process was endowed with a new treaty framework, the so-called “ECOWAS Revised Treaty”. Against the background of this historical milestone, the Mid-Term Conference of the WAI-ZEI cooperation project, which took place in October 2013 in Praia, used the opportunity to take stock after 20 years. WAI-ZEI Paper No. 17 now presents the results of this conference and of the first phase of the WAI-ZEI project. The paper is published in the three official ECOWAS languages, English, French and Portuguese. Articles analyze the West African integration process in terms of successes, obstacles and challenges for the future. They look at the institutional development as well as the fields of economic, legal, security, and energy integration. A further contribution is dedicated to the multidimensional nature of relations between West Africa and Europe at national and supranational levels. The authors, who are at the same time Fellows at WAI, highlight the institutional and political achievements and the growing commitment for a regional policy approach in West Africa over the last two decades. However, they express criticism about a lack of resources in regional institutions and structures, which prevents them from matching their strategic aspirations. Furthermore, Member States are often skeptical regarding the transfer of powers and sovereignty to the regional level. Against this background, there is a gap between political announcements and their practical implementation, which needs to be bridged. WAI and ZEI will continue to look for solutions to these problem areas from an academic perspective also in the second phase of their joint cooperation project.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 17 is also available in French and  Portuguese.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 16 2014, Praia/Bonn

 Deckblatt NzueFelix Fofana N´Zué: Formulating a Regional Policy for Energy and Technology / Innovation: What Role for Taxation. Praia/Bonn 2014

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 16 analyzes, from a practical perspective, the challenge of formulating a regional energy and technology and innovation policy. In light of the contradiction between available resources in West Africa, their distribution all over the region on the one hand and the lack of access of the population to these energy resources on the other hand, the author emphasizes the need for a regional energy policy in West Africa. However, an obstacle to this goal is the lacking reflection of the regional ECOWAS approach in national policy documents and the confusion of responsibilities between different national and regional institutions. Although the ECOWAS Energy Protocol provides a legal basis for a regional energy policy and also involves fiscal aspects of this policy field, its implementation has proved to be difficult in practice. In contrast to energy policy, technology and innovation policy is still in an early stage of its development at the regional level. Technology and innovation policy suffers from a lack of resources and functioning structures, particularly in the regional sphere. In the author´s view, a lack of awareness of the relevance of research, technology and innovation as a “development tool” is one of the reasons for this deficit.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 15 2014, Praia/Bonn  

WAI-ZEI Paper Kokil web 1Beejaye Kokil: Cross-country Data Analysis of Services Trade – Data Availabili­ty and Harmonization in est Africa. Praia/ Bonn 2014

The paper describes the definition and concepts of trade in services and gives a general overview of the statistical sources, methods and frameworks of measuring it. It captures the importance of the sector for the West Africa region, recent trends in regional service trade and prospects for its development, as well as related infrastructural challenges. Highlighting data limitations and paucity in the region, it also makes a plea for reinforcing the capacity of the institutions involved in the compilation and analysis of such data; improving the collaboration between the various institutions; using international methodologies and standards for data sharing; as well as employing the latest IT tools to facilitate the processing and dissemination of the data for policy use, the private sector and the public in general.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 14 2014, Praia/Bonn

 WAI-ZEI Paper Nitsch web 1Volker Nitsch, International Trade in Services - Data, Issues, Findings, and Recommendations. Praia/ Bonn 2014

This paper reviews recent empirical research on international trade in services from a European perspective. The availability of relevant data is discussed; stylized facts are presented; and methodological issues for the analysis are highlighted. Using disaggregated micro data from individual European countries, it also provides an application for the study of trade in services, finding that trade relationships in service and merchandise trade are surprisingly short-lived

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 13 2014, Praia/Bonn

 WAI-ZEI Paper Joubert en and-fr web 1Jérôme Joubert, Negotiating service liberalization at regional level - The Case of West Africa / Négocier la libéralisation des services à un niveau régional - Application aux pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Praia/ Bonn 2014

 The paper proposes steps to achieve preferential liberalization of regional trade in services within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) zone by analyzing the interests of such an agreement, the potential benefits for member countries and ECOWAS zone, as well as possible combinations of this regional endeavor with ongoing or future initiatives at bilateral and multilateral level. Describing the various stages that may lead to the achievement of such an agreement, it discusses potential barriers to service trade, possible forms of agreement, the scope of the sectors concerned and the methods of negotiation that can be deployed. Highlighting the needs to make positive list of sectors and negative list of commitments, it also provides details of the types of reciprocity that must be mobilized for obtaining reciprocal concessions.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 12 2014, Bonn/Praia

WAI-ZEI Paper Rabaud web 1Isabelle Rabaud: Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Liberalization of Trade in Services: Lessons for Regional Integration and Sectoral Policies. Praia/Bonn 2014

This paper draws insights from the literature on Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modeling of potential gains from liberalization for developing countries, in particular Northern, Eastern and Southern African economies. Due to the importance of regulatory framework and to the size of service industries, substantial potential gains are expected from liberalization, by accession to WTO, regional, preferential or bilateral trade agreements. However, it seems that attention should be focused on the specificity of each region and country and that a sectoral approach is necessary. Regarding the choice between multilateral, bilateral or regional liberalization, the optimal framework depends on service industries. Institutions particularly matter for services and reforms should be global and focused. Domestic reforms are necessary prior to trade liberalization

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 11 2014, Bonn/Praia

WAI-ZEI Paper King and Marks web 1Charlotte King and Jon Marks, European-West African Relations in the Field of Energy – Obstacles to a Sustainable Approach. Praia/Bonn 2014

 The paper analyzes bi-regional relations in the field of energy, considering the commercial trade dynamics of energy as a set of commodities, as well as political dynamics of energy as a strategic good. More specifically, it discusses West Africa hydrocarbon structures and agency reminiscent of the colonial era, while exploring newly arising global patterns of supply and demand that lead to a general shift in global energy flows. Since Africa’s energy poverty continues being perceived in development terms, while Europe’s energy security is conceived in strategic, geopolitical terms, the paper identifies obstacles and opportunities to reinvent the bi-regional relationship for the new set of energy dynamic with both regions benefitting from interdependent energy systems.

WAI-ZEI Paper 2013

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 10 2013, Praia/Bonn

WAI-ZEI Paper No 10Ablam Benjamin Akoutou, Rike Sohn, Matthias Vogl, Daniel Yeboah, The Future of the Africa-EU Partnership: Learning to think about Opportunities, Bonn/Praia 2013.

The WAI-ZEI Paper No. 10 deals with the future of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy (JAES). Building upon discussions during the Mid-Term Conference of the WAI-ZEI Cooperation in October 2013 in Praia, the four project coordinators in Praia and Bonn have elaborated a short analysis, which at the same time contains practical recommendations. Thematically, the paper is structured along the themes that  will most probably form the core of the future Africa-EU Strategy. The geographical focus within Africa lies on West Africa while the conceptual focus is on the added value of improved structures of research, science and education. With this paper, the WAI-ZEI Cooperation wants to contribute to the debate on a more effective design of bi-regional relations.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 9 2013, Praia/Bonn

DP No  9 cover webDiery Seck, Proposed Architecture for an ECOWAS Common Currency Union

The idea of creating a regional monetary zone for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has been at the forefront of the regional integration agenda and has attracted interest from policymakers, researchers and other development stakeholders for the last three decades. The author, Diery Seck, Director of the Center for Research on Political Economy (CREPOL) in Dakar, Senegal, compares three competing options for the creation of the common monetary zone: The extension of the Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA) to other West African countries, a merger of the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) and UEMOA and the immediate creation of a new currency.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 8 2013, Praia/Bonn

DP 8 Leuffen Cover

Dirk Leuffen: European Union as a Blueprint? Nine hypotheses on Differentiated Integration in a Comparative Perspective

For the last decades, the EU has been a valid reference point for comparative research and the literature on the EU arguably provides the most extensive coverage of the topic of differentiation. The author, Dirk Leuffen, Senior Fellow at the West Africa Institute (WAI) and Professor of Political Science at the University of Konstanz, formulates a set of hypotheses on comparative differentiated regional integration. He focuses on different settings, different thematic areas and actors of regional organization and designs nine hypotheses for thinking more systematically about differentiated integration in regional organizations. He argues that the causes of differentiation lie mostly in a combination of institutional settings and diverging member state preferences. Also he shows that differentiation is generally considered a measure to overcome gridlock amongst a heterogeneous group of member states of a regional organization, in the context of unanimous decision-making.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 7 2013, Praia/Bonn

DP7 Eising cover

Rainer Eising: Theories of Policy Formulation

Policy theories include propositions needed to diagnose problems, explain policy change, or predict policy outcomes. Policy research is concerned with the output of political processes. The author, Rainer Eising, Senior Fellow at the West Africa Institute (WAI) and Professor of Political Science at the University of Bochum, establishes several theories to account for policy development. His focus is four theories which can be useful analytical tools for researchers in their analysis of policy processes: Actor Centered Institutionalism (ACI), Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), Multiple Stream Approach (MSA), and Advocacy Coalitions Framework (ACF). He highlights these policy theories that claim substantial causal leverage over policy-making processes and points out several elements that need to be included into the study of policy processes in order to explicitly address the issue of policy change. After the discussion of these approaches and individual theories, Eising provides a comparative assessment.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 6 2013, Praia/Bonn

No 6 Cover web

Rike Sohn and Ama Konadu Oppong (eds.): Regional Trade and Monetary Integration in West Africa and Europe

Regional trade and monetary integration mark the core elements of any regional integration processes worldwide. However, the challenges are quite different: While the Member states of the European Union (EU) are economically and monetarily united, they are dealing with the imbalances and potential spill-overs effects resulting from the Euro zone crises. The Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS), on the other hand, struggles with low levels of intra-regional trade, external dependencies and the goal of establishing a region-wide common currency. 

Inspired by the experience of each other, the WAI-ZEI anthology combines the reflections of well-known researchers from both regions on three of the most important questions in this regard: How can regional integration schemes contribute to enhance regional trade and integration into the global economy? What are the effects of monetary integration and how can synergies be created? To what extent can experiences of other regions be helpful in this process?

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 5 2013, Praia/Bonn

WAI-ZEI Paper Assoua DeckblattKocra L. Assoua: The Nexus between Political Instability and Monetary Sustainability. The Case of a West African Monetary Union.

According the theory of optimum currency areas, the sustainability of a currency union is mainly depending on macroeconomic criteria and policies. Political variables are mostly left aside. The author of this WAI-ZEI Paper, Professor of African Studies at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, and director of the Farafina Institute, challenges this view, taking the plans for a West African Monetary Union as an example. Kocra L. Assoua first sketches the efforts and different concepts of West African states to establish a single currency until 2020. In the second part he describes the security challenges and the vicious circle of political uncertainties the region is facing in parallel. The author concludes in arguing that the sustainability of a West African monetary union will not only depend on the credibility of macroeconomic policies, but also to a large extent, on the ability of ECOWAS member states to successfully tackle political instability.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 4 2013, Praia/Bonn

Ludger Kühnhardt, L´Afrique et l´Europe: Rélations comparés et processus d´intégration régionale conjointe.

In the fourth WAI-ZEI Paper, Ludger Kühnhardt analyzes the changing relationship between Africa and Europe in a historical context. The partnership between the African Union and the European Union initiates a new phase in the bi-continental relations. It is obvious that elements from past phases of the relations between the two neighbouring continents survive the current paradigmatic shift. Yet, it is worthwhile to consider the current phase of a true partnertship as a momentous historic opportunity. The author, director at the Center for European Integration Studies (ZEI) at Bonn University and member of the Scientific Committee of the West Africa Institute (WAI) in Praia, distinguishes between three historic periods in the relation between Africa and Europe: Phase 1: the notion of Euro-Africa during the colonial era; phase 2: the perspective of association and its defining idea of development; phase 3: the beginning of a true partnership and the quest for regional integration in both regions.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 3 2013, Praia/Bonn

Djénéba Traoré, Will Africa be Left Behind on the Education for All (EFA) Trail?

In the third WAI-ZEI Paper, the Director General of WAI, Djénéba Traoré analyzes the role of “Education for All“ (EFA) for Africa. EFA is a global action plan in the field of education, promoted by UNESCO, which aims at implementing six goals from early childhood care and education to the literacy rate until 2015. Approaching the deadline, it is time to strike a balance, on the one hand regarding the progress that has been made, on the other hand regarding the deficits that exist particularly in a continent like Africa, which is severely affected by shortcomings in the education sector. Although being a global challenge and a human right, EFA is not seen by number of African states as an absolute priority and urgent necessity. The costs that occur for establishing new educational structures, purchasing equipment, recruiting personnel or changing conceptual education paradigms are seen as lavishly high, which hampers the good intentions. In spite of information and sensitization and at least rhetorically indicated political will, numerous African governments have placed the principle in the second row. Sustainable development has to come with a new form of knowledge distribution. EFA opens the way for general access to education and for equal opportunities. On the basis of UNESCO reports and research literature on the role of new technologies, the article analyzes the state of affairs regarding the EFA goal in Sub-Sahara Africa and the relationship of question about education and political and economic realities on a continent which is still looking for the right path. Will the EFA goal become a reality in 2015?

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 2 2013, Praia/Bonn
Denis Acclassato, Intra West-African Trade.

In the second WAI-ZEI Paper, published in February 2013, Denis Acclassato evaluates whether the various policies and institutional reforms have improved the flow of intra-Community trade within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), namely trade diversion and creation of new trade flows. Furthermore, the author, Professor at the Faculty of Economic Sciences (FASEG) at the University of Abomey-Calavi in Benin, presents a strategy for further market integration in the Union.

WAI-ZEI Paper No. 1 2013, Praia/